Airfoil troubleshooting

This is version Throughout this text, there will be cross-references to other parts of the manual, as well as hyperlinks to web pages. These will be formatted as blue text. This means you are free to copy, share, and adapt the works so long as you give Laminar Research creators of X-Plane credit and release your work under a similar license. File Menu : The file menu works just like the file menu of any word processor or spreadsheet application. Files are created, loaded, and saved here; the only difference is that, instead of text documents, Airfoil Maker is opening and saving files that represent airfoils.

Save As : Use this to save an airfoil that was created or modified under a different name. Dominating the design screen is a large black graph with green, red, and yellow lines on it, like Figure 1.

Moving the mouse around in the graph will cause the numbers displayed in the black box in the bottom left of the screen seen in Figure 2 to change in real time. This is the coefficient display box which displays, for whatever spot on the graph the mouse it pointing at, the coefficients of the airfoil at that angle of attack.

Just point the mouse at the part of the curve you are interested in, and look at the exact coefficients in the coefficient display box. The center of the chart represents an angle of attack of zero degrees. Remember that the angle of attack is the angle of the wing to the air. It is the angle at which the wing hits— attacks —the air. The green line in the graph is the coefficient of liftcalled cl in the coefficient display box in the bottom left. The red line is the coefficient of dragcalled cd in the coefficient display box.

The yellow line is the coefficient of momentcalled cm in the coefficient display box.

airfoil troubleshooting

In the upper left of the screen is a number labeled Refor Reynolds number, as highlighted in Figure 3. The Reynolds number is simply the air density times the speed of the airplane times the chord of the wing divided by the viscosity of air wow!

For recreational purposes, we can probably neglect any change in performance with Reynolds number, thus ignoring this setting altogether. The number entered in the Reynolds number box may have some impact, however, on the simulation. For highest realism, users can generate two different airfoil files for the same airfoil in Airfoil Maker, each file at a different Reynolds number, and assign them both to a wing in Plane Maker! Pilots should realize that very good accuracy can be obtained without touching the Reynolds number at all, and without generating two airfoil files for each airfoil.

airfoil troubleshooting

In this section, we also have the thickness ratio and the drag-divergence Mach number. The thickness ratio is an important characteristic of the airfoil so it is usually easy to find in the airfoil data or even the airfoil name.

Drag div Mach is the airspeed when drag starts to increase dramatically. The Mach number is a fraction of the speed of sound. Hence, 0. If you are designing a near-supersonic aircraft like an airliner or a supersonic aircraft then you will either need to find this number in the published specifications or adjust it until you get the resulting performance you want in X-Plane.

Notice that at zero degrees angle of attack the center of the graph the coefficient of lift is fairly low; it is close to the thin white line that represents zero. That represents the stall.An airfoil American English or aerofoil British English is the cross-sectional shape of a wingblade of a propellerrotoror turbineor sail as seen in cross-section.

An airfoil-shaped body moving through a fluid produces an aerodynamic force. The component of this force perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift.

The component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag. Subsonic flight airfoils have a characteristic shape with a rounded leading edgefollowed by a sharp trailing edgeoften with a symmetric curvature of upper and lower surfaces. Foils of similar function designed with water as the working fluid are called hydrofoils. The lift on an airfoil is primarily the result of its angle of attack.

When oriented at a suitable angle, the airfoil deflects the oncoming air for fixed-wing aircraft, a downward forceresulting in a force on the airfoil in the direction opposite to the deflection. This force is known as aerodynamic force and can be resolved into two components: lift and drag. Most foil shapes require a positive angle of attack to generate lift, but cambered airfoils can generate lift at zero angle of attack.

This "turning" of the air in the vicinity of the airfoil creates curved streamlinesresulting in lower pressure on one side and higher pressure on the other.

This pressure difference is accompanied by a velocity difference, via Bernoulli's principleso the resulting flowfield about the airfoil has a higher average velocity on the upper surface than on the lower surface. A fixed-wing aircraft 's wings, horizontaland vertical stabilizers are built with airfoil-shaped cross sections, as are helicopter rotor blades. Airfoils are also found in propellers, fanscompressors and turbines.

Sails are also airfoils, and the underwater surfaces of sailboats, such as the centerboard and keelare similar in cross-section and operate on the same principles as airfoils.

An airfoil-shaped wing can create downforce on an automobile or other motor vehicle, improving traction. When the wind is obstructed by an object such as a flat plate, a building, or the deck of a bridge, the object will experience drag and also an aerodynamic force perpendicular to the wind.

This does not mean the object qualifies as an airfoil. Airfoils are highly-efficient lifting shapes, able to generate more lift than similarly sized flat plates of the same area, and able to generate lift with significantly less drag. Airfoils have potential for use in the design of aircraft, propellers, rotor blades, wind turbines and other applications of aeronautical engineering.

A lift and drag curve obtained in wind tunnel testing is shown on the right. The curve represents an airfoil with a positive camber so some lift is produced at zero angle of attack. With increased angle of attack, lift increases in a roughly linear relation, called the slope of the lift curve. At about 18 degrees this airfoil stalls, and lift falls off quickly beyond that.

The drop in lift can be explained by the action of the upper-surface boundary layerwhich separates and greatly thickens over the upper surface at and past the stall angle.

The thickened boundary layer's displacement thickness changes the airfoil's effective shape, in particular it reduces its effective camberwhich modifies the overall flow field so as to reduce the circulation and the lift. The thicker boundary layer also causes a large increase in pressure dragso that the overall drag increases sharply near and past the stall point.

Airfoil design is a major facet of aerodynamics. Various airfoils serve different flight regimes. Asymmetric airfoils can generate lift at zero angle of attack, while a symmetric airfoil may better suit frequent inverted flight as in an aerobatic airplane. In the region of the ailerons and near a wingtip a symmetric airfoil can be used to increase the range of angles of attack to avoid spin — stall.

Thus a large range of angles can be used without boundary layer separation. Subsonic airfoils have a round leading edge, which is naturally insensitive to the angle of attack.

The cross section is not strictly circular, however: the radius of curvature is increased before the wing achieves maximum thickness to minimize the chance of boundary layer separation. This elongates the wing and moves the point of maximum thickness back from the leading edge. Supersonic airfoils are much more angular in shape and can have a very sharp leading edge, which is very sensitive to angle of attack.

A supercritical airfoil has its maximum thickness close to the leading edge to have a lot of length to slowly shock the supersonic flow back to subsonic speeds. Generally such transonic airfoils and also the supersonic airfoils have a low camber to reduce drag divergence.Stream any audio from your Mac all around your network. You can even send to iOS devices and other computers.

Use Airfoil to stream any audio playing on your Mac, from music services like Spotify and Pandora, web-based audio from Safari or Chrome, or anything else you like. Stream the music you love to speakers all over the house. Everything will play in perfect sync, even between different speaker types. Receive audio and remotely control Airfoil on your iOS device or other computer! Configure Airfoil to auto-transmit on launch, and you'll be streaming audio around your house just by opening the app.

With the silence monitor feature, Airfoil can automatically disconnect when silent audio is streaming. Send to multiple outputs with just a click. Create a group for all the speakers in your house, or make multiple zones. Airfoil includes metadata with its stream, so you can see track titles and album art with compatible outputs. Note: Before purchase, noise is overlaid on all transmissions longer than 10 minutes.

airfoil troubleshooting

Details Airfoil for Mac 5. Keep it up! Adam D. Alida A. Use it all the time. Dan B. Gabe P. Ariel H. Puts Spotify on my home sound system! Mark L. I heart AirFoil and some Apple hardware I already have. Andy K. John R.

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Best piece of software I own. Dennis C. Really the best airplay speakers manager! Office is shaking. Ignazio L.Advanced repair technologies are extending gas turbine component lives well beyond conventional limits. Among the technologies available are: rejuvenation heat treatments, advanced welding and alloys, internals stripping and recoating, and LPM powder metallurgy. The most significant maintenance cost over the life of the plant is replacement of hot gas path components when they reach the end of their reliable life.

Operators therefore continue to search for ways of extending the life of the expensive hot gas path components, to reduce the plant life cycle costs, and achieve an advantage in an increasingly competitive environment.

To address these needs, new component repair technologies have been developed and are now being employed to extend component lives. In many cases these advanced repair processes are achieving two times the life compared with conventional repair methods. The cost savings to the operator are very significant since the cost of even the most advanced repair is a small fraction of the avoided cost of new replacement parts. Some of these enabling technologies include:. All of these technologies have been proven over the past eight to ten years to reliably extend the life of the mature E class components by up to two times before they are retired.

These same technologies have also been successfully applied to the latest generation of aero-derivative components with similar results over this same eight to ten year period. Since the F class components are based on aero engine alloys, cooling designs and coating systems, it was a logical extension to adapt and apply these processes to the latest generation of industrial frame engines.

Liburdi's position as a specialist in both industrial frame and aero and aero-derivative repairs has enabled these technologies to be successfully transferred to the F class, while maintaining the benefit of the relevant prior experience. Heat treatments are used during the repair process for many reasons — to improve weldability, to stress relieve welds, diffuse coatings, etc. These heat treatments are not designed to restore the microstructure material properties which have been depleted over many hours of high temperature exposure.

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In contrast, Liburdi's rejuvenation heat treatment cycles are specifically designed to restore the alloy microstructure and creep strength and to return the parts to their original, as-new, properties. The Liburdi rejuvenation process involves several heat treatment cycles and can include both high pressure and vacuum heat treatments. A high pressure hot isostatic pressing HIP heat treatment may be incorporated as a first step to fully dissolve and recondition the microstructure and heal any creep damage.

Airfoil Maker Manual

HIP has also been used extensively over the years in new part manufacturing by all of the OEMs, to eliminate casting porosity in most of the current high performance blades and vanes. Subsequent rejuvenation heat treatments are performed in a vacuum furnace to dissolve and then re-precipitate the essential gamma prime phase which gives all of the current nickel based superalloys their strength.

The gamma prime phase is then formed into the ideal size and shape through lower temperature heat treatments.

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The end result of this transformation can be seen in the electron microscope images at 10 times magnification in Figure 1 which show the original aged gamma prime structure GTD alloy as-received after 24 hours of service compared to the restored, as-new, structure following the rejuvenation process. Typically, a properly designed rejuvenation heat treatment will prepare the blades to be run for a similar service interval to the original interval, eg blades that need rejuvenation at 48 hours will be run reliably for an additional 48 hours of similar service after rejuvenation.

The practice of applying rejuvenation heat treatments to turbine blades may be a relatively new concept for some operators, however these processes have been applied and proven with reliable results since for industrial frame engines and since for aero-derivative engines.

As part of the re-certification for rejuvenation of a set of blades, sample material is subjected to the same heat treatments and subsequently processed through qualification tests. This generally involves an examination of the microstructure and mechanical testing stress rupture tests to ensure the rejuvenated material meets the original new material specifications Figure 2. In recognition of this track record, Liburdi now carries out its rejuvenation process under contract for some OEMs as part of their strategy to manage the life cycle costs of their engines.

Most of the F class stage 1, and sometimes stage 2 blades, suffer oxidation metal loss at the tips due to the high operating temperatures of the engines.

The tip height must be restored by weld build up and machined to the original tip height to re-establish the engine performance. The selection of the weld metal used to restore the tip is critical if we are to prevent future oxidation when the blades are returned to service.Recently I've started having problems with my Spotify playing via Airfoil. Very often the sound drops out. And every time a song is near the end — like 20 secs before the end — the sound drops out.

I thought it looked like a bandwidth problem, but I've checked system resources, and internet connection, and that is not the problem. But my Spotify is located in the right application folder, so I think that is not the problem either. Anyone experiencing the same problems? It's driving me mad Did you check Statistics in Airfoil? Press Alt-Window in Airfoil, and you'll see this option. If not, your neighbour probably bought a new microwave and you have to switch channels in your wireless settings Happened to may several times.

I had similar problem, where airfoil signal would drop at last 20 sec in a song or whenever in beginning when choosing a new song. When spotify starts buffering a new song, the heavy download blocks the airfoil upload for 3 seconds until spotify buffer is full. I used netlimiter 3 for windows 7. Im sure something equivalent is available for other operating systems. If I can't stream at home then why have spotify. In the Airfoil folder on my hard drive?

Or when the Airfoil window opens? I've tried to noodle this one but can't figure it out. By using our website you agree to our use of cookies in accordance with our cookie policy.

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Learn more here. All forum topics Previous Topic Next Topic.License key not working? If this fails, take a screenshot of the License window and send it to us. Lost license key? If you've previously purchased, but are unable to find your key, the License Recovery Tool can automatically resend it. If you need personal assistance, or you just want to provide feedback, you can reach our support team via email. Current Version 5. Download the Latest Get Airfoil. Learn More Visit Product Page. Airfoil doesn't see my remote speaker Computer output is unavailable when sending System Audio Handling audio delays and speaker synchronization.

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License Key Issues License key not working? Use the License Recovery Tool. Contact Us Directly If you need personal assistance, or you just want to provide feedback, you can reach our support team via email. Contact Us We're amazingly responsive! We strive to reply in under 24 hours.Set the following conditions as a Reference for the remainder of the activity :.

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Step 1. Set the velocity to 50 mph and record the lift. Increase the airspeed slider to mph. Record lift. Increase the velocity to mph and record lift again.

Airfoil repair: enabling technologies extend life and reduce costs

Finally increase the velocity to mph and record lift. Describe the change that you observe in lift as velocity changes. Graph lift vs. Step 2.

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Return to the Reference condition and select the "Stall Model". Set the angle at 2.

airfoil troubleshooting

Repeat, setting the angle for 5. Graph the results. Complete your graph with a stall at an angle of Will lift be generated at an angle of 0? Step 3. Return to the Reference conditions. Set the surface area to sq. Record the value for lift. Double the surface area.

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